hinduism and christianity

Hinduism and Christianity : Interfaith Dialogue

Hinduism and Christianity : Interfaith Dialogue

India, known as Bharat or Hindusthan, is a land of diversity and complexity. Hinduism has a strong influence on Indian culture, but the country has also demonstrated a remarkable sense of tolerance and acceptance towards other faiths. Christianity, in particular, has a long history in India, dating back to at least the third century. Over the centuries, there have been clashes between religious communities, but many religions and religious movements have emerged and flourished in India, often coexisting and enriching each other’s spiritual journey.

In this article, we will explore the intricate relationship between Hinduism and Christianity in India, focusing on interfaith dialogue and understanding. We will examine the challenges and opportunities for Christians in engaging with Hinduism, the historical backdrop of Hindu-Christian relations, and the changing attitudes of Christians towards Hinduism. Additionally, we will delve into the significance of informal dialogue in fostering mutual understanding and respect between the two faiths.

The Cultural and Religious Landscape of India

India’s cultural and religious landscape is incredibly diverse, with numerous linguistic and ethnic groups. Evangelizing in India has always presented significant challenges due to the country’s vast diversity. However, recent decades have seen a subtle yet certain transformation in India. The introduction of an open market economy and globalization has brought about both positive and negative changes. India has emerged as a global power, with increasing literacy rates and a growing pool of educated individuals. The country’s population has crossed the billion mark, and India now has one of the youngest populations in the world. These changes have significant implications for Christian mission in India.

One significant change is the transition from foreign to indigenous mission. The departure of foreign missionaries in the post-independence era cleared the way for the Indian church to take a more active role in mission work. Indigenous missionary movements have emerged, leading to breakthroughs in previously resistant segments of Indian society. However, the rise of Hindu fundamentalism poses a challenge to the growth of Christianity in India. Christian communities have faced persecution and opposition from fundamentalist groups, leading to restrictions on conversion and the production of anti-Christian literature.

Historical Reactions, Opposition, and Misperceptions of Christianity

Christianity has faced opposition and misconceptions in India throughout its history. One common objection is that Christianity is seen as a Western religion, introduced to India by Western traders and missionaries. This perception has led to a negative attitude towards Christianity, as it is associated with foreign rule and imperialism. Conversions to Christianity, especially in central and northern India, have often resulted in divisions within Hindu society, leading to the perception that Christianity poses a threat to national integrity.

Conversion itself is a complex issue in Hindu society. Hindus believe that there can be no radical change in religious convictions and that conversion is unnecessary. Hinduism is seen as a pluralistic religion that acknowledges the partial apprehension of Ultimate Reality in human experience. Hindus view claims of exclusivity and absolute truth as spiritual arrogance. Conversion is also seen as defiling, as it involves severing ties with one’s family, caste, and society. These objections and aversions to conversion shape Hindu attitudes towards Christianity.

Christian Attitudes toward Hinduism

Christian attitudes towards Hinduism have evolved over time. Early Protestant missionaries approached Hinduism with an evangelical attitude, viewing it as a religion in need of conversion. They often criticized Hindu beliefs and practices, focusing on the negative aspects. However, a shift in attitudes began to take place in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. The emergence of Indologists and the influence of Swami Vivekananda played a role in presenting a more positive view of Hinduism to the West.

Evangelical missionaries gradually recognized the need to understand Hindu culture, religion, and practices more sensitively. They started engaging in interfaith dialogue and acknowledging the elements of truth present in Hinduism and other religions. This shift in attitude was further reinforced by the World Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910, which emphasized the need to change the traditional missionary approach towards Hinduism. However, it is important to note that diverse Christian attitudes towards Hinduism still exist, ranging from evangelical perspectives to more inclusive and dialogue-oriented approaches.

Informal Dialogue: Building Bridges between Hinduism and Christianity

Informal dialogue plays a crucial role in fostering understanding and respect between Hindus and Christians in India. While formal dialogue often takes place at an institutional level, informal dialogue occurs in day-to-day interactions between individuals of different faiths. It is a natural part of the lives of many Indians, but unfortunately, it has not received much attention from theologians and church leaders.

Informal dialogue has the potential to make a significant difference in the life and witness of Christians in India. It allows for open conversations on central issues of faith and practices, helping to dispel misunderstandings and misperceptions. Christians and Hindus can engage in meaningful discussions, sharing their beliefs and experiences in a non-confrontational manner. This type of dialogue is especially important in the context of emerging Hindu fundamentalism, as it provides an opportunity for Christians to interact sympathetically with people of other faiths.

In order to effectively engage in informal dialogue, Christians in India need to be informed, equipped, and mobilized. They should be encouraged to listen, learn, and understand the perspectives of Hindus, while also confidently sharing their own faith. Informal dialogue can create a neutral platform where mutual enrichment can take place, paving the way for a more constructive and respectful articulation of Christian witness.


The relationship between Hinduism and Christianity in India is complex and multifaceted. Christians in India face challenges and opportunities in engaging with Hinduism, particularly in the context of Hindu fundamentalism. Understanding the historical reactions, opposition, and misperceptions of Christianity helps to navigate the intricacies of interfaith dialogue.

Informal dialogue emerges as a powerful tool for building bridges between Hindus and Christians. It provides an avenue for open conversations, mutual understanding, and respect. By engaging in informal dialogue, Christians can contribute to a more constructive and harmonious coexistence with people of other faiths in India.

As Christians continue their mission in India, it is essential to approach interfaith dialogue with humility, sensitivity, and a genuine desire to learn from the richness of Hinduism. By fostering a spirit of dialogue and understanding, Christians can contribute to a more inclusive and vibrant religious landscape in India.

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